HTML Special Characters


Special characters are characters that are not included on a standard English keyboard. Examples include letters with accent marks over them such as in résumé, or an ownership symbol like © or ™. In HTML, these special characters are referred to as entities, and you create them by using codes beginning with an ampersand (&), followed by an entity name or an entity number, and ending with a semicolon. The entity names and entity numbers both represent the same thing; you can use either one. For example   or   both render as a non-breaking space.

In addition to the non-keyboard symbols, certain other symbols must be created as entities in HTML because they have a specific meaning in HTML. The most common are the ampersand (&), the greater than sign (>), and the less than sign (<). You can’t just type those symbols in HTML code because a browser would interpret them as tags or entities rather than characters to display.

SymbolEntity NameEntity Number
& (ampersand) & &
< (less than) < <
> (greater than) > >
(nonbreaking space)    
¢ (cent) ¢ ¢
£ (pound) £ £
¥ (yen) ¥ ¥
© (copyright) © ©
® (registered trademark) ® ®
° (degree) ° °
± (plus or minus) ± ±
† (dagger)
™ (trademark)